Tuesday, May 02, 2006

Don't just restate the question/task for your thesis statement; make it comprehensive, analytical, and clear. Take a position and don't be internally inconsistent!

For the DBQ, do the above and cite 2+ additional documents and specific reasons why/how they could add to the discussion. For each document identify the bias/point of view and group them(pro/con, class, gender, occupation, time, location). Incorporate political, economic and social (including cultural) aspects. For the POV (point of view), state the feature that shows POV or why that person might have a certain position; explain the tone and characteristics of the author. WRITE AN INTRO AND A CONCLUSION, RESTATING THE THESIS IN THE CONCLUSION. Cite ALL the documents, but don't just spit out a laundry list! Do not take verbatim quotes from the documents!

Don't be too wordy or use the word "I." Address the question completely and proofread.

Keep track of time but DON'T freak out! WRITE NEATLY. Do an outline first but don't spend too much time on it.

For the change over time essay include CONTINUITIES AND REASONS FOR CONTINUITIES. For the compare/contrast essay don't forget to compare (similarities)!

To any AP student reading, God bless you and I hope that you excel on this exam!

Here is the AP World History Exam scoring guide with examples.

Composite Score Ranges
117-170 = 5
96-116 = 4
Examples and Rules
70 multiple choice – go for 58+ (assuming free response scores below). Number correct – (0.25 * number incorrect) = raw score.
1 DBQ – go for 7+ → score of 7 = 31.5 raw points. Rubric score * 4.5 = raw score.
1 COT – go for 7+ → score of 7 = 19.25 raw points. Rubric score * 2.75 = raw score.
1 CC – go for 7+ → score of 7 = 19.25 raw points. Rubric score * 2.75 = raw score.

Assuming you get a 7 for each free response question, you must get 58 multiple choice correct to score a 5 altogether.

How can you do well and relieve stress before the exam?

Get some exercise and fresh air.

Imagine yourself succeeding (the power of positive thinking).


Focus on your strengths.

Don't do drugs.

Eat well.

Set realistic goals.

Breathe and stretch.

Don't do way too much studying the night before; go to bed early!

Thursday, April 20, 2006

Major Developments
1. Questions of periodization
Start: World War I
World Wars, men and women becoming more equal, colonies gaining independence, Cold War and fear of nuclear war, developing nations.
A. Continuities and breaks, causes of changes from the previous period and within this period
Causes of changes: morals and values affected by scientific (physics) revolutions, experimental art and architecture, WWI caused Great Depression and WWII ended it, decolonization of Africa led to independence of other colonies,
2. The World Wars, the Holocaust, the Cold War, nuclear weaponry, international organizations, and their impact on the global framework (globalization of diplomacy and conflict; global balance of power; reduction of European influence; the League of Nations, the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Nations, etc.)
Holocaust: "Aryan" Adolph Hitler (wrote Mein Kampf in prison) limited Jewish rights, destroyed synagogues/businesses/graveyards/schools/homes, sent them to ghettoes and then concentration camps (Auschwitz - starved, shot, gassed with cyclon b insecticide - 6+ million Jews killed).
Cold War: ideological struggle (Soviet communism vs. U.S.A. capitalism) for world influence 1945-1991, almost resulted in nuclear war during Cuban Missile Crisis, USSR and USA never attacked one another, ended when Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.United Nations: founded 1945 to fight hunger, has Security Council and General Assembly and 3 other branches, 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, aims for disaster relief.Nonaligned nations: wanted to make economic progress and avoid war, so did not choose sides (India, Yugoslavia, many African nations); a.k.a. 3rd world countries.3. New patterns of nationalism (the interwar years; decolonization; racism, genocide; new nationalisms, including the breakup of the Soviet Union)
Genocide: Hitler slaughtered Jews/Slavs/Communists/homosexuals/gypsies/Jehovah’s Witnesses at concentration camps. Bosnian Serbs practiced “ethnic cleansing” (made international community question whether one country could rightly intervene in another country’s civil war).
Decolonization: charismatic, democracies, communism, independence from foreign rule.
New Nationalisms: fascism (authoritarian and totalitarian), charismatic, dictatorship, racism, national pride, imperialism, socialism and communism.
African nationalism: educated Africans became nationalists due to the contrast between liberal ideas imparted by Western education and the realities of discrimination under colonial rule.
Breakup of Soviet Union: Causes=leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev, openness to democratic ideas (glasnost), reshaping of economy and government (perestroika), economic problems, freedom movement in Eastern Europe; Effects=formation of Commonwealth of Independent States, end of Cold War, Soviet Union no longer a superpower, economic hardships, conflicts between pro-communist and pro-democratic groups, minority revolts and civil conflicts.
4. Impact of major global economic developments (the Great Depression; technology; Pacific Rim; multinational corporations)
Great Depression: 1929 stock market crash, writers criticized government, Japan and Germany hit the hardest, tariffs made things worse, bank closures.
Pacific Rim: Asian Tigers (Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea), heavy investment in education, high rate of personal savings, Japan surpasses U.S. in cars and then audio (Keiretsu = industrial alliances), model for economic development. Labor costs rose in industrial countries; factory jobs shifted to less industrial countries.
Multinational corporations: helped globalization, they can control national governments by threatening to relocate/leaving a given country to go to a friendlier one/they are usually more powerful than many countries (especially in the Third World), may damage local industries which cannot compete.

5. New forces of revolution and other sources of political innovations
African independence movements, Black civil rights movement, anti-Vietnam movement, Black Power movement.
6. Social reform and social revolution (changing gender roles; family structures; rise of feminism; peasant protest; international Marxism)
Gender roles: WWI: women made shells in munitions factory (women do “masculine” jobs), WWII: women helped men but European and American women couldn’t carry weapons, Cold War: women return to domesticity.
International Marxism:. Student revolts began around 1968 with University students using Marxist or socialist criticism of capitalism and industrialization to protest multinational control of aspects of the world economy and government corruption, protested racism and Vietnam War. Russian women: could work in factories and make weapons, birth control, more opportunities under communism (went on strikes, involved in revolution). Chinese women: birth control, could join army, more opportunities under communism (involved in revolution, could divorce and choose their spouse). Family structures: in America during Cold War family was the best defense against communism, traditional families but then families spread out more as women joined work force. Feminism: struggle for equal economic/political/social rights, disgust with being a stay-at-home mom, independent and in control of their own bodies (abortion and contraception), many international conferences.
Peasant protests: China=communist revolts led by Mao Deng Xiaoping that brought free market reforms. Cuba=communist revolts led by Castro and helped by the Soviet Union. Iran=revolutions in which Ayatollah Khomeini came into power and established an Islamic theocracy. The effects on the roles of women in Russia, China and Cuba resulted in “theoretical equality” (not necessarily actual equality), and in Iran the Islamic revolution took away many women’s rights.
7. Globalization of science, technology, and culture
A. Developments in global cultures and regional reactions, including science and consumer culture
Max Planck, Einstein (Relativity), Freudian psychoanalysis.
B. Interactions between elite and popular culture and art
C. Patterns of resistance including religious responses
8. Demographic and environmental changes (migrations; changes in birthrates and death rates; new forms of urbanization; deforestation; green/environmental movements)
Migrations: Eastern Europeans and Middle Easterners immigrated to Germany for jobs and shelter, southeastern Europeans and North Africans went to France and did manual and agricultural labor, Latin Americans and Asians to the U.S.A. (U.S.A. took action to halt illegal immigration, deny social benefits to illegal aliens, and deport illegal immigrants to their native countries). Migrations of Africans to cities damaged family life b/c only men migrated and this left women behind to raise children and to farm. Increased migrations due to faster/easier/safer travel, effects of migrations included the establishment of Israel as a nation-state and the division of India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim), tourism popular (exposure to different cultures, native cultures survive, breaks down barriers).
Birth Rates/Death Rates: major population increase, lower death rates due to antibiotics, 1960 birth control pill=population growth slowed, some developing countries thought a large population=more power (now there are concerns about inadequate food/housing/jobs/medical care due to overpopulation).
Urbanization: can result in cultural change, poverty (shantytowns). Now work is being done to improve education/relief agencies/health care.
Deforestation: destruction of forests (especially tropical rainforests) to build homes and cities/graze cattle/raise crops. In addition to deforestation there is pollution, acid rain from fossil fuels, depletion of ozone layer, global warming, endangered species, danger of nuclear accidents/wars.
Green Movement: increased food supply through irrigation/machinery/fertilizer/pesticides/new grains and livestock but didn’t solve world hunger (developing nations often can’t afford irrigations, many places have too little water).

9. Diverse interpretations
A. Is cultural convergence or diversity the best model for understanding increased intercultural contact in the twentieth century?
B. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using units of analysis in the twentieth century, such as the nation, the world, the West, and the Third World?

Major Comparisons and Snapshots
Patterns and results of decolonization in Africa and India
Indian Decolonization: Hindu state (India, more secular), and Muslim state (Pakistan, more religious); 8/15/1947 independence for both countries, inspired anti-imperial movements in Asia and Africa, movement started before world wars.
African Decolonization: slower than Indian decolonization due to superpower influences and tribal/ethnic/religious/linguistic divisions & state boundaries and the presence of white settlers, started after world wars. Both: hard times starting self-government, significant leaders Gandhi and Nelson Mandela. Pick two revolutions (Russian, Chinese, Cuban, Iranian) and compare their effects on the roles of womenRussian women: could work in factories and make weapons, birth control, more opportunities under communism. Chinese women: birth control, could join army, more opportunities under communism. Iranian women: Cuban women:

Compare the effects of the World Wars on areas outside of Europe
World War II on Africa: increase in forced labor, inflation, new and radical ideas.
Compare legacies of colonialism and patterns of economic development in two of three areas (Africa, Asia, and Latin America)
Africa: starvation, countries still depend on foreign aid, low living standards, problems with government, effects of racism still felt (Apartheid).
Asia: popularity of communism, economic nationalism.
Latin America: small states resemble colonies, countries still depend on raw material exports, low living standards, problems with government
The notion of "the West" and "the East" in the context of Cold War ideology
U.S.A. said Soviets were spreading communism and Soviets said U.S.A. was spreading imperialism.
Compare nationalist ideologies and movements in contrasting European and colonial environments
Compare the different types of independence struggles
Papua New Guinea: provinces were gradually given greater power. India: non-violence, civil disobedience, Indian National Congress and All-Muslim League.
Compare the impacts of Western consumer society on two civilizations outside of Europe
Middle East: Middle Eastern “Barbie”
China: Internet firewall (blocking access) and censorship
Compare high tech warfare with guerrilla warfare
Different proposals (or models) for third world economic development and the social and political consequences

Examples of What You Need to Know
Below are examples of the types of information you are expected to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.
Causes of the World Wars, but not battles in the wars
World War I: French and German rivalry (1871 France lost Franco-Prussian War, France had to pay reparations to Germany and lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine), Austria-Hungary’s opposition to Russian Pan-Slavism, Balkan Wars and their aftermath, British and German economic (industrial) rivalry, Triple Alliance (Britain, France, Russia) and Triple Entente (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy), colonial rivalries in Africa.
World War II: Germany had to pay reparations, inflation in Germany, U.S. stock market crash and Great Depression worldwide,
Cultural and political transformations resulting from the wars, but not French political and cultural history
Political: United Nations (General Assembly and Security Council—operates by majority vote except that five permanent members of Security Council have veto power in that chamber). Cultural (Literature): Animal Farm by George Orwell (totalitarianism), search for moral and religious significance amid destruction of the war, human capacity for evil (The Lord of the Flies by William Golding), poetry based on battlefield experiences, post-nuclear war books (On the Beach by Nevil Shute). Growing social dislocation and inequality since World War II.Fascism, but not Mussolini's internal policiesStemmed from unfair Treaty of Versailles (countries lost territory or weren't rewarded, e.g. Italy) and reparations, economic depression (inflation, poverty, unemployment), inefficient/ineffective government. Fascism = dictator, strict socioeconomic controls by state, terror tactics, censorship, ultra-nationalism, often racism, blind loyalty to leader, strong military, strict discipline.
Feminism and gender relations, but not Simone de Beauvoir or Huda Shaarawi
1945 UN (United Nations) Commission of the Status of Women was established to give women equal political/economic/educational rights to women, 1960s many women in the work force, late 20th century international women’s conferences.
The growth of international organizations, but not the history of the ILO
Colonial independence movements, but not the details of a particular struggle
The issue of genocide, but not Cambodia, Rwanda, or Kosovo
Attempted extermination of an entire people (e.g. Hitler's genocide of European Jews).
The internationalization of popular culture, but not the Beatles
Key invention = phonograph. Examples: McDonald's, Coca-Cola, jeans. U.S.A./Europe/Japan have embraced local tastes and products whereas China and the Middle East have limited access to products or created their own to compete with their international rivals.
Artistic Modernism, but not Dada
Expressionism and cubism (2D painting, e.g. by Pablo Picasso). Distaste for realism. New music (Rock ‘n’ Roll, rap/hip-hop).
Major Developments
Questions of periodization
Continuities and breaks, causes of changes from the previous period and within this period
Haves/Have nots (developed/industrialized vs. developing), political revolutions (desire for independence and democracy), inequalities between regions due to imperialism.
Changes in global commerce, communications, and technology
New technology=faster ships, railroads and telegraphs and canals ("annihilation of space and time")--thanks to the Industrial Revolution.
Changes in patterns of world trade
Industrialized nations had more economic/political/military strength, Latin American/African/south and Southeast Asian nations dependent on one cash crop (Latin America="Banana Republics"), world trade increased due to division of labor in countries with raw materials and countries with manufactured goods.
Industrial Revolution (transformative effects on and differential timing in different societies; mutual relation of industrial and scientific developments; commonalities)
Transformative effects: Laissez-faire economics (Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations), rise of big business, dangerous factory working conditions, improved transportation, rising standards of living, urbanization, new class structure (upper, middle, and lower class).
Demographic and environmental changes (migrations, end of the Atlantic slave trade, new birthrate patterns, food supply)
Migrations: Europeans to America to escape famine and dangerous factory conditions in addition to anti-Semitism, Asians to Americas to find gold and silver and work on railroads and factories.End of Atlantic slave trade: Birthrate patterns: West = very low birth rates 19th century, lower birth rates b/c less child labor and more difficulty in raising large families in urban society (financing and living space), high birth rates continued in rest of world.
Changes in social and gender structure (Industrial Revolution; commercial and demographic developments; emancipation of serfs/slaves; and tension between work patterns and ideas about gender)
Social structure: new classes (businessmen and industrial pioneers --> upper, middle, lower)
Political revolutions and independence movements; new political ideas
Latin American independence movements
Mexican Revolution led by poor classes 1818-1820, majority not really affected.
Revolutions (United States, France, Haiti, Mexico, China)
United States:
France: national debt/starvation/declining economy/denial of rights under absolute monarchy/inspiration from Glorious (England) and American Revolutions and Enlightenment ideas; results: constitution made landowning white men equal, ended feudalism, limited (constitutional) monarchy, power of Roman Catholic Church limited.

Haiti: the only successful slave revolt, defeated French troops, constituion graned equal rights to everyone, inspired by French Revolution, declaration of Republic of Haiti.France and Haiti: both inspired by American Revolution, the lower classes rebelled, power given to small higher classes over lower classes.
Rise of nationalism, nation-states, and movements of political reform
Overlaps between nations and empires
Rise of democracy and its limitations: reform; women; racism
Rise of Western dominance (economic, political, social, cultural and artistic, patterns of expansion; imperialism and colonialism) and different cultural and political reactions (reform; resistance; rebellion; racism; nationalism)
Economic: European trade rivaled Asian trade, India dominated by British, West in control of Africa. Social: racism and Social Darwinism justified Atlantic slave trade and imperialism respectively. Cultural: colonies culturally changed due to foreign leadership, Western religions, etc. Britain = indirect rule through Africans, traditions not changed much. France/Belgium/Portugal/Germany = direct rule (European government, laws, and courts). Imperialism and colonialism: stemmed from Industrial Revolution, desire for balance of power and strong military.
Impact of changing European ideologies on colonial administrations

Diverse interpretations
What are the debates over the utility of modernization theory as a framework for interpreting events in this period and the next?
What are the debates about the causes of serf and slave emancipation in this period and how do these debates fit into broader comparisons of labor systems?
Various opinions: slaveowners thought slavery was cruel and ended it, slave and serf revolts ended it, slavery and serfdom were no longer needed thanks to industrialization (other systems were more profitable), revolutions.
What are the debates over the nature of women's roles in this period and how do these debates apply to industrialized areas and how do they apply in colonial societies?

Major Comparisons and Snapshots
Compare the causes and early phases of the industrial revolution in western Europe and Japan
Western Europe: caused by high consumer demand for better and cheaper products, Britain the first area to industrialize (cotton), then iron and steel, 1765 steam engine, 1815 steam engine adapted for transportation (boats, locomotives). Japan: caused by desire to create strong economy for maximum strength as a nation, started nation-wide, steam engine introduced very quickly, Japanese government oppressed workers.
Comparative revolutions (compare two of the following: Haitian, American, French, Mexican, and Chinese)
Compare reaction to foreign domination in: the Ottoman Empire, China, India, and Japan
Ottoman Empire's Reaction: Turks aided by Britain and France in resisting Russian domination and Pan-Slavic nationalism, Turks are defeated by Russians and they lose part of the Balkans.
China's Reaction: lost to British in two Opium Wars, opens more ports to foreigners, Boxer Uprising defeated by Japanese and U.S.A. and European troops, defeated in Sino-Japanese War.
India's Reaction: resisted British East India Company, Sepoy Rebellion 1857 (Indian soldiers revolted against certain practices that violated Hindu customs), India then placed under British rule.
Japan's Reaction: forced to open treaty ports by U.S.A., starts Meiji Restoration (modernizes & industrializes).
Comparative nationalism
Compare forms of western intervention in Latin America and in Africa
Compare the roles and conditions of women in the upper/middle classes with peasantry/working class in western Europe
Middle: responsibility=sent husbands to work, sick of being seen as housewives, didn’t have as much power/value as men just like lower class. Low: working housewives, responsibility=take care of children and home. Both classes: took action to reform to be more valued for their work.

Examples of What You Need to Know
Below are examples of the types of information you are expected to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.
Women's emancipation movements, but not specific suffragists1870s and 1880s partial suffrages.
The French Revolution of 1789, but not the Revolution of 1830
Causes: national debt/starvation/declining economy/denial of rights under absolute monarchy/inspiration from Glorious (England) and American Revolutions and Enlightenment ideas; results: constitution made landowning white men equal, ended feudalism, limited (constitutional) monarchy, power of Roman Catholic Church limited.
Meiji Restoration, but not Iranian Constitutional Revolution
Followed 1868 Tokugawa shogunate destruction, everyone equal under law, imperialization, centralization, industrialization (increased Japan’s dependence on world market), Westernization (universities), exported silk, zaibatsu (powerful wealthy industrial and banking families – e.g. Mitsubishi).
Jacobins, but not Robespierre
Radical republicans during French Revolution, Reign of Terror, cult of reason, tens of thousands of people executed and imprisoned. Slogan = “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.”
Causes of Latin American independence movements, but not specific protagonists
Inspiration by Enlightenment and French and American Revolutions, wanted to get independence and social equality and end poverty.
Boxer Rebellion, but not the Crimean War
Violent uprising to get rid of "foreign devils" which was supported by Dowager Empress Cixi of Qing China, ended by troops.
Suez Canal, but not the Erie Canal
Egyptian canal linking Mediterranean and Red Sea, vital to world trade (shortened sea voyage between Europe and Asia), Britain wanted control of it so they conquered Egypt in 1882.
Muhammad Ali, but not Isma'il
Viceroy of Egypt under Ottoman Turks (1805-1848), made Egypt most powerful land, had imperial ambitions, led Egyptian modernization.
Marxism, but not Utopian socialism
Karl Marx (the Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital), predicted class struggle between wealthy capitalists and protelariat (workers) that would result in a classless communist society.
Social Darwinism, but not Herbert Spencer
Belief that stronger nations dominate weak ones, based on Darwinian evolutionary theory and "survival of the fittest."
Major Developments
Questions of periodization
Continuities and breaks, causes of changes from the previous period and within this period
Changes in trade, technology, and global interactions
Knowledge of major empires and other political units and social systems
Ottoman, China, Portugal, Spain, Russia, France, England, Tokugawa, Mughal, characteristics of African empires in general but knowing one (Kongo, Benin, Oyo, or Songhay) as illustrative
Gender and empire (including the role of women in households and in politics)
Slave systems and slave trade
Demographic and environmental changes: diseases, animals, new crops, and comparative population trends
Cultural and intellectual developments
Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
Comparative global causes and impacts of cultural change
Changes and continuities in Confucianism
Major developments and exchanges in the arts (e.g., Mughal)
Diverse interpretations
What are the debates about the timing and extent of European predominance in the world economy?
How does the world economic system of this period compare with the world economic network of the previous period?
Major Comparisons and Snapshots
Imperial systems: European monarchy compared with a land-based Asian empire
Coercive labor systems: slavery and other coercive labor systems in the Americas
Comparative knowledge of empire (i.e., general empire building in Asia, Africa, and Europe)
Compare Russia's interaction with the West with the interaction of one of the following (Ottoman Empire, China, Tokugawa Japan, Mughal India) with the West
Examples of What You Need to Know
Below are examples of the types of information you are expected to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.
Neoconfucianism, but not specific Neoconfucianists
Importance of European exploration, but not individual explorers
Characteristics of European absolutism, but not specific rulers
Reformation, but not Anabaptism or Huguenots
Ottoman conquest of Constantinople, but not the Safavid Empire
Siege of Vienna (1688–89), but not the Thirty Years' War
Slave plantation systems, but not Jamaica's specific slave system
Institution of the harem, but not Hurrem Sultan
Major Comparisons and Snapshots
Japanese and European feudalism
Japan: emperor (figurehead), shogun (actual ruler), daimyo, samurai (Bushido), peasants. Europe: king, lords, vassals (lesser lords), knights (oaths of fidelity and chivalry), serfs (bound to the land, technically freer than slaves). Europe was more centralized.
Developments in political and social institutions in both eastern and western Europe
Compare the role and function of cities in major societies
Compare Islam and Christianity
Similarities: monotheistic, sacred text, Abrahamic, Heaven/Paradise and Hell, holy city Jerusalem, two sects (Catholic/Protestant and Sunni/Shiite), places of worship. Islam: Allah, Prophet Mohammed, unitarian, Quran, mosque, holy day = Friday, holy city of Mecca. Christianity: God (YHWH), Jesus Christ (Son of God, 2nd person in the Trinity), trinitarianism, Bible (Old & New Testaments), church, holy day = Sunday.
Gender systems and changes, such as the impact of Islam
Aztec Empire and Inca Empire
Compare European and sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic world
Examples of What You Need to Know
Below are examples of the types of information you are expected to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.
Arab caliphate, but not the transition from Umayyad to 'Abbasid
Mamluks, but not Almohads
Feudalism, but not specific feudal monarchs such as Richard I
Manorialism, but not the three-field system
Crusading movement and its impact, but not specific crusades
Viking exploration, expansion, and impact, but not individual explorers
Mongol expansion and its impact, but not details of specific khanates
Papacy, but not particular popes
Indian Ocean trading patterns, but not Gujarati merchants
600 C.E.–1450
Major Developments
Questions of periodization
Nature and causes of changes in the world history framework leading up to 600 C.E. – 1450 as a period
Emergence of new empires and political systems
Continuities and breaks within the period (e.g., the impact of the Mongols on international contacts and on specific societies)
The Islamic worldThe rise and role of Dar al-Islam as a unifying cultural and economic force in Eurasia and Africa
Dar al-Islam = house of Islam (where Islam is practiced). Dar al-Islam successfully expanded umma (Muslim community) into Arabia, western Persia, Iraq, parts of North Africa, Palestine, and Syria.
Islamic political structures, notably the caliphate
Caliph = Muslim community leader (theocracy) and successor to Muhammad; jihad, taxes. Dispute between Sunnis (only Alis--descendants of Muhammad's son--could be caliph) and Shiites (anyone could be the caliph).
Arts, sciences, and technologies
Interregional networks and contacts
Development and shifts in interregional trade, technology, and cultural exchange
Marco Polo: merchant and diplomat who visited China and increased European participation in eastern hemisphere, influenced European readers.
Trans-Sahara trade
Ghana to Mali; gold for salt.
Indian Ocean trade
Myriad products, sailors and merchants married port women = bilingual and multicultural families.
Silk routes
Missionary outreach of major religions
Christianity: Matteo Ricci (Jesuit missionary to China).
Contacts between major religions, e.g., Islam and Buddhism, Christianity and Islam
Crusades: holy war, started by Pope Urban II, Christians wanted to recapture Palestine and Jerusalem from Muslims.
Impact of the Mongol empires
United most of Asia, Middle East, & some parts of Europe. Increased Asian trade with Europe, literacy, special artisans, spread of plague.
China's internal and external expansion
The importance of the Tang and Song economic revolutions and the initiatives of the early Ming dynasty
Tang: fast ripening (Champa) rice, paper money, porcelain, metallurgy. Song: improved Tang innovations, credit (“flying money”), vibrant trade. Ming: Zheng He voyages to Indian Ocean basin (brought silk on junks), recovered profitable farmland = higher tax revenues.
Chinese influence on surrounding areas and its limits
Developments in Europe
Restructuring of European economic, social, and political institutions
The division of Christendom into eastern and western Christian cultures
1054 schism: Greek Orthodox split from Roman Catholic. Greek vs. Latin language, icons vs. no icons, leavened vs. unleavened bread, beards vs. shaved, caesaropapism (emperor involved in religious affairs) vs. papacy, etc. The coronation (crowning) of Charlemagne challenged Byzantine authority. There were territorial disputes.
Social, cultural, economic, and political patterns in the Amerindian world
Yucatán peninsula, pyramids, never politically unified, syllabic hieroglyphics, patrilineal, terraces, royals participated in war, salt and cacao and obsidian, ritual and solar and long count calendar, number zero and decimals, chinampas.
Sacrifices, barter, theoretically democratic (elected leaders), clans, cacao, chinampas, tribute.
Roads (trade & military), centralized, ayllus (satraps), mountains, pastoralism, llamas and alpacas, capital at Cuzco, terraces, sacrifices, metallurgy and weaving, divine-right monarchy, m’ita = commoners’ mandatory tasks, execution of commoners who looked at ruler’s face, declined due to civil war.
Demographic and environmental changesImpact of nomadic migrations on Afro-Eurasia and the Americas (e.g., Aztecs, Mongols, Turks, Vikings, and Arabs)
Vikings: raided and pillaged monasteries/villages/towns, caused Carolingian rule to collapse, paved the way for feudalism, traded with Baltic and North Sea societies.
Migration of agricultural peoples (e.g., Bantu migrations, European peoples to east/central Europe)
Consequences of plague pandemics in the fourteenth century
Growth and role of cities
Diverse interpretations
What are the issues involved in using cultural areas rather than states as units of analysis?People in cultural areas have same origins while states may contain different nationalities and make generalization difficult.
What are the sources of change: nomadic migrations versus urban growth?
Nomadic migrations, since the two interacting societies are separate (and different).
Was there a world economic network in this period?
Yes; except for the Americas.
Were there common patterns in the new opportunities available to and constraints placed on elite women in this period?
Yes; most societies patriarchal, Americas=women almost equal to men, footbinding and veiling still practiced, Middle East took away women's rights while overall in Europe it stayed the same (varied by area and class).

Major Comparisons and Snapshots
Comparisons of the major religious and philosophical systems including some underlying similarities in cementing a social hierarchy, e.g., Hinduism contrasted with Confucianism
Role of women in different belief systems -- Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, and Hinduism
Buddhism: not dominated, could become nuns. Christianity: spiritual equality but male dominance in church and family, could become nuns. Hinduism: sati (widows burned themselves in funeral pyre) persisted for a long time, Hindu women married very young.
Understanding of how and why the collapse of empire was more severe in western Europe than it was in the eastern Mediterranean or in China
Compare the caste system to other systems of social inequality devised by early and classical civilizations, including slavery
Compare societies and cultures that include cities with pastoral and nomadic societies
Compare the development of traditions and institutions in major civilizations, e.g., Indian, Chinese, and Greek
Describe interregional trading systems, e.g., the Indian Ocean trade
Compare political and social structures of two early civilizations, using any two of the following: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley, Shang dynasty, and Mesoamerica and Andean South America.
Indus Valley: castes, clans. Shang: decentralized, advisors, foot-binding, ancestor veneration, patriarchy, divination, pictograms, scribes, buffalo domestication, yin/yang. Mesopotamia: patriarchy, Sumerian whell, Epic of Gilgamesh, monarchy, classes, administrators. Egypt: patriarchy, centralized, pharaohs, hereditary classes, best women's rights among early civilizations. Mesoamerica: farmers, artisans, traders, sacrifices of poor people and criminals, everyone equal under law, clans, theoretically democratic.

Examples of What You Need to Know
Below are examples of the types of information you are expected to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.
Nature of the Neolithic revolution, but not characteristics of previous stone ages, e.g., Paleolithic and Mesolithic
Economic and social results of the agricultural revolution, but not specific date of the introduction of agriculture to specific societies
Lineages, group solidarity, ancestor veneration, organized religion, language families, towns, trade.
Nature of patriarchal systems, but not changes in family structure within a single region
Stemmed from concern for property and family fortune. Men controlled family, workers, slaves, and government.
Nature of early civilizations, but not necessarily specific knowledge of more than two
Importance of the introduction of bronze and iron, but not specific inventions or implements
Work is easier and faster, more $, more food, military, agriculture.
Political heritage of classical China (emperor, bureaucracy), but not specific knowledge of dynastic transitions, e.g., from Qin to Han
Greek approaches to science and philosophy, including Aristotle, but not details about other specific philosophers
Diffusion of major religious systems, but not the specific regional forms of Buddhism or Aryan or Nestorian Christianity
Buddhism: missionary monks (Syria, Egypt, Macedonia, Southeast Asia), pilgrims on Silk Road who exchanged beliefs at oases.
This is part of an AP World History vocabulary sheet for unit 1. I am still working adding all the terms; there are probably 100+ more just for this unit. I will do the same for units 3-5.

Chivalry: knight’s duties = bravery, loyalty, honesty, protection of women.
Manor: self-sufficient, village and surrounding land, each class has mutual responsibilities.
Serfdom: peasants bound to the land, could not leave manor without lord’s permission, technically freer than slaves.
Hanseatic League: monopolized Baltic Sea & North Sea trade, built lighthouses, trained sailors, fought piracy.
Leonardo da Vinci: painter, sculptor, inventor, architect, musician, engineer, painted the Mona Lisa and designed aircraft and submarines.
Michaelangelo: sculptor, engineer, poet, painter, architect, sculpted St. David statue, designed dome of St. Peter’s Church in Rome.
Mansa Kankan Musa: a Muslim and the most powerful Mali ruler (1312-1337), large army, efficient, local governors. He made a pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 and established the Mali Empire’s reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Voyages of Zheng He (Cheng Ho): promoted Chinese trade, collected tribute, traded silk and porcelain for animals for the royal zoo, and convinced people of Chinese supremacy.
Development of the Chinese novel:
Silk, porcelain, and china:
Toltecs: powerful central Mexican postclassic empire.
Aztecs: twin capitals Tenochtitlán and Tlatelolco, limited monarchy, clans, hereditary aristocrats, monogamous commoners, polygamous nobles, tribute, pyramids, sun god, human sacrifice.
Tenochtitlán: Aztec capital on island in Lake Texcoco, just before Spanish conquest it was populated by 150,000 people, its ruins are the foundation of Mexico City.
Incas: mountains, roads, pastoralism, llamas and alpacas, capital at Cuzco, terraces, sacrifices, metallurgy and weaving, divine-right monarchy, m’ita = commoners’ mandatory tasks, execution of commoners who looked at ruler’s face, declined due to civil war.
This is part of an AP World History vocabulary sheet for unit 1. I am still working adding all the terms; there are probably 100+ more just for this unit. I will do the same for units 2-5.

Stone Age:
Hunting and gathering (foraging) societies:
Civilization: cities, traditional economy, religion, job specialization, public works, art, writing, government.
Hittites and iron weapons: central Anatolian people, established empire in Anatolia and Syria in Late Bronze Age, fought New Kingdom Egypt for control of Syria Palestine, traded metal, chariot warfare.
Phoenicians and the alphabet:
Democracy: government by the people for the people. In Athens there was direct “democracy,” in which only free males age 19+ could participate in government.
Persian Wars: Greek city-states (polises) vs. Persian Empire; included Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.), Darius’s punitive expedition that failed at Marathon (490 B.C.), defeat of Xerxes’ massive invasion of Greece by Spartan-led Hellenic League (480-479 B.C.) thanks to home court advantage. Resulted in greatest period of Greek cultural productivity. Events recorded by “father of history” Herodotus.
Peleponnesian War: long and costly war (431-404 B.C., Athens vs. Sparta, due to Athenian imperialism. Athens had a strong navy and so their losses were gradual. Sparta ultimately won due to Athenian blunders and Persian financial support.
Hellenism: Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian culture … more women’s rights, philosophers, poetry, idealism, astronomy, math.
Qin: Wei Valley (eastern China), conquered rival states, first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.), ruled by ruthless legalist Shi Huangdi, succeeded by Han dynasty.
Shi Huangdi:
Han: Reasons for decline = couldn’t control decentralized government, canals neglected, high taxes, peasant revolts, subordinates ruled independently.
Nara Japan: influenced by Chinese, Chinese-style bureaucracy, centralized.
Heian Japan:created when capital moved from Nara to Kyoto real power belonged to whichever noble clan assumed the position of chancellor (not the emperor).
Maya: Yucatán peninsula, pyramids, never politically unified, syllabic hieroglyphics, patrilineal, terraces, royals participated in war, salt and cacao and obsidian, ritual and solar and long count calendar, number zero and decimals, chinampas.

Tuesday, April 18, 2006

1. Locating world history in the environment and time
A. Environment
1.Geography and climate: Interaction of geography and climate with the development of human society
2. Demography: Major population changes resulting from human and environmental factors
B. Time
1.Periodization in early human history
Rise & fall of Classical civilizations, beginning of dark ages, rise of Islam, migration.
2.Nature and causes of changes associated with the time span
Rivers are essential to agricultural societies.
3.Continuities and breaks within the time span
Continuities: agriculture, patriarchy.
Breaks: language barriers, new technology, laws, trade, new eras.
C. Diverse Interpretations
1.What are the issues involved in using "civilization" as an organizing principle in world history?
Civilization means different things to different people. Note: most early civilizations had cities, central governments, traditional economies, organized religion, social classes, art and architecture, roads/bridges/public works, writings systems, and specialized jobs.
2.What is the most common source of change: connection or diffusion versus independent invention?
Connection/diffusion. If one invention was kept in one area, there would be little improvement; inventions need to be spread for benefit of multiple societies.

2. Developing agriculture and technology
A. Agricultural, pastoral, and foraging societies, and their demographic characteristics (Include Africa, the Americas, and Southeast Asia.)
Migration and expansion occurred as population increased and resources decreased in a given area. Foraging (hunting & gathering) societies needed to follow moving animal herds.
B.Emergence of agriculture and technological change
C. Nature of village settlements
People settled where there were sufficient resources and supplies. The value of material goods gave rise to different classes--when resources were scarce, groups went to war, and chiefs emerged and gained power.
D. Impact of agriculture on the environment
E. Introduction of key stages of metal use
Bronze and iron impact: work is easier and faster, more $, more food, military, agriculture.

3. Basic features of early civilizations in different environments: culture, state, and social structure
A. Mesopotamia
Cuneiform, ziggurats, fertile crescent, irrigation, textiles, oil, cults, city-states. Traded with Egypt ca. 3500 B.C.
B. Egypt
Hieroglyphics, pyramids, pharaohs (god-kings), Nile, irrigation, floods, slaves, ma'at (order of the universe), polytheism, nobles, artisans, scribes, afterlife & mummification, dynasties. Women had highest status in all ancient societies: could own property, enter business deals, and divorce. Traded with Mesopotamia ca. 3500 B.C.
C. Indus Valley civilization or Harrapan civilization
Rajas, varna (Hindu caste system based on skin color), sati (widows burn themselves on husband's funeral pyre), Lawbook of Manu (concerning castes), ivory, copper, semiprecious stones, pearls, epics (Upanishads, Mahabharata, Bhagavad-Gita).
D. Shang dynasty of Yellow River (Huang He) Valley civilization
Many floods, new tools, loess soil, no real irrigation (?), ancestor veneration, oracle bones, walled towns, blacksmiths, patriarchy, decentralized, hereditary classes.
E. Mesoamerica and Andean South America
No highly developed writing system in Andean societies.
(Students should be able to compare two of the early civilizations above.)

4. Classical civilizations
A. Major political developments in China, India, and the Mediterranean
B. Social and gender structures
Women lost rights under the Indian Hindu caste system.
C. Major trading patterns within and among Classical civilizations; contacts with adjacent regions D. Arts, sciences, and technology
Technology: invention of gunpowder.

5. Major belief systems
A. Basic features of major world belief systems prior to 600 C.E. and where each belief system applied by 600 C.E.
B. Polytheism Sumerian, Shang, Mayas, Romans, Greeks, Aztec, Africans (animism). Many finite "gods," usually in control of forces of nature.
C. Hinduism
Indus Valley (India). Polytheism, reincarnation, castes (varna - very low social mobility) dharma (moral law), karma (good=higher caste in next life; bad=lower caste), no single founder, Upanishads (Hindu dialogues), Mahabharata, Bhagavad-Gita).
D. Judaism
Israel/Palestine. Torah, Talmud, dietary restrictions, YHWH (God) and covenant with Abraham, Ten Commandments, Israelites are God's chosen people.
E. Confucianism
China. Founded by Confucius (Kongzi). Filial piety, Analects, women are subordinate/inferior, people are naturally good, ruler must lead by example. In the next period (600-1450) neo-Confucianism arose as a response to Buddhism.
F. Daoism
Stayed in China. Founded by Laozi (Lao-Tzu). "The way" - harmony with nature, yin (dark, female, passive) and yang (bright, male, active), go with the flow.
G. Buddhism
Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha - "Enlightened One"). Nontheism, Four Noble Truths (life is suffering caused by desire), Eightfold Path (moderation, ways to eliminate desire), goal is to achieve nirvana (enlightenment). Later on, branched off into Theravada (Hinayana - more traditional and closer to original Buddhist teachings) and Mahayana (more rituals, some syncretism evident).
H. Christianity
Founded by Jesus Christ of Nazareth in Israel ca. A.D. 33. Jesus is God the Son and born of the Virgin Mary and was resurrected on the third day following His crucifixion under Pontius Pilate, Trinity, Golden Rule - love your neighbors, Heaven, Hell, Ten Commandments, the Apostles, Bible (Old & New Testament) and Apostolic Tradition.

6. Late Classical Period (200 C.E. to 600 C.E.)

A. Collapse of empires (Han China, loss of western portion of the Roman Empire, Gupta)

Han China: Administrators couldn't control the decentralized government, subordinates ruled independently and were then neglected. Gupta: collapsed under pressure from Hun invaders. Western Roman Empire: Visigoths and Germanic invasions, armly poorly trained, farmers left their land, too much slave labor, corrupt officials, government was too strict, population decreased due to war and disease.

B. Movements of peoples (Bantus, Huns, Germans, Polynesians)

Bantus: skilled farmers and herders who moved from West Africa to south and east in search of fertile land when Sahara started drying out; they spread knowledge of farming, ironworking knowledge, and language across African continent from 500 B.C. and A.D. 1500. Huns: foragers (hunters & gatherers) with strong military (skilled horsemen), started south of Gobi desert, pushed Germanic people west and south, major threat to Roman Empire, disappeared after Attila's death in A.D. 453. Polynesians: mariners with canoes who migrated to Hawaii, Samoa, Fiji, Tahiti, New Zealand, Marquesas, and Easter Island.

C. Interregional networks by 600 C.E.: trade and the spread of religions.

The text from the AP topic outline will be regular font. The corresponding specific information will be in bold font.
The six major themes are:
Patterns and impacts of interaction among major societies: trade, war, diplomacy, and international organizations
The relationship of change and continuity across the world history periods covered in this course
Impact of technology and demography on people and the environment (population growth and decline, disease, manufacturing, migrations, agriculture, weaponry)
Systems of social structure and gender structure (comparing major features within and among societies and assessing change)
Cultural and intellectual developments and interactions among and within societies
Changes in functions and structures of states and in attitudes toward states and political identities (political culture), including the emergence of the nation-state (types of political organization)
First we will go over AP World History.
Welcome to "Remus and Romulus," a study aid for AP History students (World, American, Modern European). Always do your homework on time.